Romano-British Deities

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Historical evidence of the introduction and acceptance of the Roman Pantheon in conjunction with the Celtic Pantheon is abundant throughout Britain. The following dictionary lists the known, identifiable evidence and where possible, background of the deities honored in Roman Britain.

Contents

Abandinus

Abandinus is represented in Britain by a single votive object. He is unknown throughout the rest of the Empire and is therefore thought to have been a local god of Cambridgeshire, possibly associated with either a natural spring or a stream in the neighbourhood.

  • Godmanchester (230a, bronze votive feather).

Aesculapius

Aesculapius was the son of Apollo by Coronis the daughter of Phlegias. He was taught the art of medicine by Chiron, the centaur who also reputedly instructed mankind in the medicinal properties of herbs. He was numbered among the crew of the Argo, serving as ships physician. He received divine honors after his death and was worshipped as the Greek god of Medicine. Aesculapius is represented in Britain by six altar stones, two of which are shared with other deities, Fortuna and Hygiene; notably, two of the altar stones are written in Greek.

  • Chester (445 et Fortuna Reduci);
  • Overborough (609 et Hygaeia);
  • Maryport (808 in Greek);
  • Binchester (1028);
  • South Shields (1052);
  • Lanchester (1072, c.170AD's, in Greek and Latin).

Aeternae

Eternity is mentioned on a single British altar stone, which appears to be unique within the Roman empire. Eternity is, however, a known surname for the goddess Roma, of which many examples are known throughout the Empire, also at two locations in Britain (see below).

  • Old Carlisle (886).

Alaisiagae

The Germanic goddesses known as the Alaisiagae are known from three altar stones, all from the same fort on Hadrian's Wall and all shared with other gods; either the 'Spirit of the Emperor' or Mars. There appear to have been only two of these goddesses, and they are named on one altar as Boudihillia and Friagabis, and on another as Beda and Fimmilena. These goddesses are possibly recorded on two inscriptions in Greek recorded in L' Année Épigraphique for 1973 (AE 1973, 265/266). Another clue to their origins comes from the ancient name of Bitburg in West Germany, which was called Beda Vicus or the 'Village of Beda' in Roman times (ILS 7056; CIL XIII 4131; Dated: 245AD; Bitburg).

  • Housesteads (1576 Alaisiagis Boudihillia et Friagabis et Num Aug, 1593 Mars Thincsus et Alaisagis et Beda et Fimmilene et Num Aug, 1594 Mars et Alaisiagis et Num Aug).

Ancasta

The goddess, Ancasta, is mentioned on a single inscription, from Bitterne near Southampton. This is the only known altar to this goddess in the entire Roman empire so it seems certain that Ancasta was a local goddess, possibly associated with the River Itchen.

  • Bitterne (97).

Anicetus

Anicetus was a son of Hercules by Hebe, also the name of a notorious freedman advisor of the emperor Nero. His name appears on two British inscriptions, both in conjunction with other deities; on an altarstone from Hadrian's Wall alongside the names of three known sun gods, and at Bath in Gloucestershire with the spa town's patron goddess Sulis. The name of the god also appears on altarstones from the continent as Sol Invictus Mithras Anicetus (ILS 4229; CIL III 1436; Sarmizegetusa, Asia) and as Apollo Anicetus (AE 1987, 880). It would seem likely that Anicetus was a solar deity, but his relationship with Sul/Minerva is uncertain. Anicetus appears also to have been a popular cognomen or last-name, particularly of slaves at Rome, and is mentioned in all sections of the CIL catalogue.

  • Bath (148 Anicetus Sulis);
  • Rudchester (1397 Sol, Apollo, Anicetus, Mithras).

Antenociticus

Antenociticus appears at only one site in Britain, on Hadrian's Wall, where three altars to the god were found within the ruins of a small temple. This god is not mentioned on any known Roman altar stones from the continent, and is therefore thought to be a native British deity, the fact that the god is revered at Benwell by a legionary legate, the tribune of an auxiliary infantry cohort and the prefect of an auxiliary cavalry ala, lends credence to this assumption, and perhaps proves that the god was not transferred here as the patron deity of an auxiliary regiment.

  • Benwell (1327 et Num Aug, 1328, 1329 c.175-7AD).

Apollo

Apollo, or Phoebus the Sun, was the son of Jupiter and Latona, and the brother of Diana the Moon. He was the god of all the fine arts, of eloquence, poetry, music and medicine. He was a prolific lover, and many demigods were born of his romantic encounters with mortal women, notable among them being his son Aesculapius. He was said by some to be the inventor of the lyre, while others assert that he was given the instrument by Mercury but was the first to gain mastery over it. His worship was established throughout the Mediterranean world, especially in Egypt, Greece and Italy, but his most splendid temple was at Delphi, itself named after a son of Apollo, where a famous oracle was also established. There are at least seventeen altars dedicated to Apollo in Britain, several of which are shared with other gods; two with the god Maponus, one with Arecurius, another with Grannus, and one with his sister Diana. Perhaps the most interesting altarstone is one found at one of the forts on Hadrian's Wall, which is dedicated to four sun gods; Mithras of Persia, Greek Apollo, Anicetus and Sol of Rome.

  • Nettleton (99a, 99b);
  • Ribchester (583 241AD, Apollo Maponus);
  • Scarcroft (633a et Num Aug?);
  • Netherby (965);
  • Chester-le-Street (1043);
  • Corbridge (1120, 1121 & 1122 Apollo Maponus, 1123 Arecurius Apollo);
  • Whitley Castle (1198);
  • Rudchester (1397 Sol, Apollo, Anicetus, Mithras);
  • HW - Housesteads to Great Chesters (1665);
  • Newstead (2120);
  • Traprain Law (2132 Apollo Grannus);
  • Bar Hill, Dunbarton (2165);
  • Auchendavy (2174 Diana et Apollo).

Arciarcon

Arciarcon is mentioned on a single British altarstone possibly dedicated to an otherwise unknown British or Germanic deity. It is possible, however, that there is evidence suggesting that this may have been one of the guises of Apollo the sun god (see Arecurius below).

  • York (640 et Num Aug).

Arecurius

Arecurius appears to have been a pseudonym of the sun god Apollo, and was possibly worshipped separately as a distinct British or Germanic solar deity (see Arciarcon above). The god is otherwise unrecorded in the Roman Empire.

  • Corbridge (1123 Arecurius Apollo).

Arnomectae

The goddess, Arnomectae, is mentioned on a single British altarstone which is unique throughout the known Roman world. She may be a local British deity associated with the River Noe, but this cannot be proven.

  • Brough-on-Noe (281).

Astarte

In the Syrian pantheon the divine personification of love was the goddess Astarte, who was also said to be the personification of the Moon, to whom a massive temple served by three-hundred priests was erected at Hierapolis in Syria. Her worship was spread throughout the Mediterranean by the Phoenicians, who raised other temples to the goddess in the Cretan towns of Knossos and Gortys. She was associated by the Greeks with their own goddess of love Aphrodite - who has no known altars in Britain - also by the Romans with their goddess Venus, both of whom, however, are associated with the like-named planet. There is only one known altar dedicated to this powerful Syrian deity in Britain, with the inscription recorded in Greek.

  • Corbridge (1124 in Greek).

Beda

For the goddess Beda, see the twin goddesses known as the Alaisiagae.

Belatucader

Belatucader is a common surname of Mars and is also worshipped in his own right as a warrior god. His name is said to be from Irish and Welsh meaning 'the fair shining one', and appears on many altarstones along Hadrian's Wall and in northern Britain, particularly within the lands of the Carvetii, where he may have been worshipped as a tribal patron god.

  • Kirkby Thore (759);
  • Brougham (772, 773, 774, 775, 776, 777);
  • Maryport (809);
  • Old Carlisle (887, 888, 889);
  • Old Penrith (914, 918 Mars Belatucader et Num Aug, 942a, 942b);
  • Carlisle (948 Marti Belatucadro);
  • Netherby (970 Mars Belatucader);
  • Carvoran (1775 Baliticauro, 1776 Blatucadro, 1784 Mars Belatucairo);
  • Castlesteads (1976 Belatugagro ar Minerv, 1977);
  • Burgh-by-Sands (2038, 2039, 2044 Mars Belatucader, 2045);
  • Bowness-on-Solway (2056 Belatocairo).

Bellinus

Bellinus is another warrior god, whose name has survived until the present day in the name of the famous British king Cunobelin or 'the Hound of Belinus', who died shortly before the Claudian invasion of southern Britain. He is undoubtedly related to the ancient Roman goddess of war Bellona.

  • Piercebridge (1027).

Bellona

Bellona, known anciently as Duelliona, was the sister of the Roman war god Mars, whose main task was to prepare her brother's war chariot. Known by the Greeks as Enyo, she was depicted in battle with dishevelled hair flowing in the wind, bearing in one hand a whip to incite the troops into battle-frenzy, and in her other hand a torch with which to light the enemies funeral pyres. Her temple at Rome was outside the city limits near the Porta Carmentalis, and was used to receive foreign ambassadors and dignitaries, also victorious Roman generals prior to their triumphal parade. Her greatest temple was at Comana in Cappadocia, which reputedly employed 3,000 priests and attendants. Her priests, called Bellonarii, were initiated into her preisthood in a ritual during which they were obliged to slash open their thighs with ceremonial knives, then, collecting their own blood up in their hands, they would pour it onto the altar of the goddess in libation.

  • Old Carlisle (890).

Bona Dea

This deity, whose name means simply The Good Goddess, is represented in Britain by a single altarstone. She was worshipped under many guises, including Ops, Vesta, Cybele, Rhea, Fauna and Fatua. Seen as being particularly desirable and equally as chaste, her following was restricted to women, who would perform her rites in the dead of night in the absence of men, even covering-up statues or other male images during the ceremonies. Her festival was celebrated annually on the first of May by the most respected Roman matrons, the wives, mothers and close relatives of the highest officers of the state, within their private residences. Her rites were famously profaned by Publius Clodius during the time of Julius Caesar (Dio XXXVII.xlv.1). The secrecy shrouding her worship was to provoke many misguided comments and much speculation among the menfolk, which mainly concentrated on the orgiastic and debauched side of things.

  • Chesters (1448 Bona Dea Regina Caelesti).

Bonus Eventus/Bona Eventui

The name of this god is easily translated as A Good Outcome. Unlike the goddess Fortuna whose sphere of influence extended over all human activities and fields of endeavour, the divine powers of this god were limited to specific events only. There are only two known dedications to this god in Britain, notably both shared with Fortuna and both from places connected with the Legions.

  • Caerleon (318 et Fortuna);
  • York (642a et Fortuna).

Boudihillia

For the Goddess Boudihillia see the Alaisiagae.

Brigantia/Bregantia

Brigantia was the patron deity of the Brigantes tribe of north-east England. It is thought by some to be connected with the names of Birgit, Brigit and Bride. If so she would be one of the three-fold goddess of wisdom, known as the 'Mother of Memory', a daughter of Dana the mother goddess. Many of her altars are conflated with Victoria or Nike and demonstrate that she must have shared some attributes with these martial goddesses.

  • Slack, Outlane (623 Bregantia et Num Aug);
  • Greetland (627 208AD; Victoria Brigantia et Num Aug);
  • Castleford (628 Victoria Brigantia);
  • Adel (630 deae Brigan);
  • South Shields (1053);
  • Corbridge (1131 Iovi Aeterno Dolicheno et Celestial Brigantia);
  • Hadrian's Wall (2066 212-17AD, Nymphae Brig);
  • Birrens (2091).

Britannia

The goddess Britannia was the celestial personification of the British Isles. Worshipped only in Britain, her altars are restricted to the militarized north of the province.

  • York (643 Britanniae Sanctae);
  • Castlecary (2152 Britton...);
  • Auchendavy (2175 Genio Terrae Britannicae);
  • Balmuildy (2195 Campestribus et Britannia).

Campestres

The Campestres or Matres Campestris, literally 'Mothers of the Parade Ground', were mother goddesses to whom the military parade ground was held sacred. Several 'Parade Grounds' have been identified in Britain, most notably outside the forts at Hardknott and Housesteads, where strangely, no altars to these goddesses have been found.

  • Gloster Hill (1206 by an unknown auxiliary cohort);
  • Benwell (1334 238AD, Matribus Campestribus et Genio Alae by the Alae I Hispanorum);
  • Newstead (2121 by a decurion of the Alae Vocontiorum);
  • Cramond (2135 Matribus Alateruis et Matribus Campestribus by a 'master at arms' of the Twentieth Legion);
  • Castle Hill (2195 Campestribus et Britannia by the prefect of Cohors IV Gallorum).

Camulos

The god Camulos was a major war deity so it is surprising that in Britain only one dedication exists in his name. Hus name is translated as 'the powerful one'. Although there are some place-names in Roman Britain which indicate religious centres dedicated to the god, certainly Camulodunum (Colchester, Essex), possibly also Cambodunum (Slack, Yorkshire). This god was also worshipped in Germany.

  • Bar Hill (2166 Mars Camulos by the soldiers of Cohors I Hamiorum).

Ceres

The daughter of Saturn and Vesta, mother by Jupiter of Proserpine who was later carried-off by Pluto, Ceres was the Roman goddess of agriculture and the harvest, vegetation and fruitfulness, a major Roman deity known to the Greeks by the name Demeter. The word 'agriculture' in Latin is cerialis, derived from the goddesses name, from whence comes the modern English word cereal, the collective noun for grass which produces edible grain, the staple food for much of the World's population. Demeter in Greek means 'Mother Earth', the abundant soil, also the resting-place of the dead, who were known to the Greeks as 'Demeter's People'. Her most important festival at Rome was the Cereales Ludi, 'The Games of Ceres', instigated by the aedile Memmius and celebrated each year for 8 days culminating on April 19th; the equivalent festivals in Greece were known as the Thesmophoria, founded by Orpheus and staged at the same time, with special ceremonies performed at her cult-centre at Eleusis, south of Athens on the 11th, 14th and 16th of April. Her other guises are Rhea, Tellus, Cybele, Bona Dea, also Berecynthia of the Phyrgians, Isis of the Egyptians, Atergatis of the Syrians, Hera of the Arcadians, and others. She was also known as the 'Syrian Goddess' or the Suriae. A pregnant sow was the favoured sacrifice to the goddess, as this animal was known to eat and thus destroy anything which grows in the earth.

  • Carvoran (1791 Ceres Dea Syria).

Cocidius

A major cult centre of this Hunter god in Britain was at Bewcastle in Cumbria, known in Roman times as Fanum Cocidi or 'The Temple of Cocidius'. His name is often conflated with the war-god Mars, with whom he obviously shares some attributes.

  • Lancaster (602 Mars Cocidius);
  • Netherby (966);
  • Bewcastle (985-989, 993 & 997a Mars Cocid);
  • Ebchester (1102 Vernostono Cocidio);
  • Risingham (1207 et Silvanus);
  • Housesteads (1577 Cocidius et Genio Praesidi, 1578 Silvanus Cocidius, 1583 IOM et Cocidius);
  • HW - Housesteads to Great Chesters (1633 m.c.37);
  • Chesterholm/Vindolanda (1683);
  • Birdoswald (1872, 1885 270-3AD; IOM et Cocidius);
  • HW - Birdoswalds to Castlesteads (1955, 1956 262-6AD, 1961, 1963);
  • HW - Castlesteads to Stanwix (2015 Mars Cocidius, 2020, 2024 Mars Coc).

Concordia

Concordia was the Roman goddess of conciliation and harmony. It is interesting to note that the only examples of altars to this goddess occur where there were vexillations from more than one Roman legion posted together in the same place. There was a certain amount of rivalry between legionary units which evidently caused some minor scuffles, prompting the erection of these two stones.

  • Carlisle (964a Legions II and XX);
  • Corbridge (1125 Legions VI and XX).

Coventina

Coventina was a native water deity associated with the spring lying just to the west of the Carrawburgh fort on Hadrian's Wall. She is not mentioned anywhere else in the Empire.

  • Carrawburgh (1522-1535 inclusive).

Deo Qui Vias Et Semitas Commentus Est

The God who Invented Roads and Pathways is mentioned on a single altarstone in Britain. An interesting case.

  • Catterick (725 191AD; dedicated by a Beneficiarius Consularis).

Diana

Diana was the sister of the Sun god Apollo and is the Roman goddess of hunting, her badges of office being a hunting bow and quiver, she is often depicted with dogs. She was also worshipped as a Lunar deity, named Phoebe by the Romans, who named her brother Phoebus; she is mentioned alongside her brother on a single altarstone in Scotland and appears alone on five other altars in Britain.

  • Bath (138);
  • Caerleon (316);
  • Corbridge (1126);
  • Risingham (1209);
  • Newstead (2122 Diana Regina);
  • Auchendavy (2174 Diana et Apollo).

Digenis

The name of the god, Digenis appears on two altarstones in Britain, both from the militarized north of the province within the territories of the Brigantes tribe. The name digenis is Greek in form and means 'the product of two genitors', or loosely, in this instance, perhaps 'the son of a mixed marriage'.

  • Chester-le-Street (1044 dedicated by people from Banna);
  • Hadrians Wall - Wallsend to Newcastle (1314).

Discipline

Disciplinae is mentioned on seven altarstones in the militarised North of Britain, two of which were found just to the rear of Hadrian's Wall at Corbridge. The majority of these altarstones are dedicated to 'The Discipline of the Emperor(s)'.

  • Corbridge (1127 & 1128 Disciplinae Aug)
  • Chesters (1497c Disciplinae Imp)
  • Great Chesters (1723)
  • Castlesteads (1978 209-17AD; Discipulinae Auggg)
  • Birrens (2092)
  • Bertha, Perth (2213c; Discipulinae Augusti)

Dis Deabusque/Omnibus Dibus

  • York (649 et IOM)
  • Watercrook (752)
  • Maryport (810, 811 Dis et Deabus Omnibus)
  • Old Penrith (926 Omnibus Dibus)
  • Carlisle (964b 213-22AD; IOM, Iuno Regina, Minerva Augusta, Mars Pater, Victoria Ceteris et Dis Deabus Omnibus)
  • Jarrow (1051 119-38AD; Divorum Omnium)
  • South Shields (1054 211-12AD; Dis Conservatoribus)
  • Housesteads (1579 Diis Deabusque)
  • Birrens (2109 dib deabusque omnibus)

Epona

  • Carvoran (1777)

Fata Bona

  • Maryport (812 et Genio Loci, Fortuna Reduci, Roma Aetern, Fato Bono)

Fimmilena

For the Goddess Fimmilena, see the Alaisiagae.

Fontes/Fontibus

  • Chester (460 et Nymphis)

Fortuna

  • Caerleon (317, 318 et Bono Eventui)
  • Chester (445 Fortuna Reduci et Aesculapius)
  • Manchester (575 Fortuna Conservatrix)
  • Slack, Outlane (624)
  • York (642a et Bono Eventui, 644, 645)
  • Bowes (730 197-202AD)
  • Kirkby Thore (760 Fortuna Servatricis, 764 Fortuna Balneae)
  • Maryport (812 Fortuna Reduci et Genio Loci, Roma Aetern & Fato Bono, 840 Roma Aeternae et Fortuna Reduci)
  • Netherby (968 Fortuna Conservatrix)
  • Binchester (1029)
  • Lanchester (1073)
  • Risingham (1210, 1211)
  • Halton Chesters (1423)
  • Chesters (1449 Fortuna Conservatrici)
  • Carrawburgh (1536, 1537)
  • Chesterholm/Vindolanda (1684)
  • Great Chesters (1724)
  • Carvoran (1778 136-8AD; Fortunae Aug, 1779)
  • Birdoswald (1873)
  • Birrens (2093, 2094, 2095)
  • Castlecary (2146)
  • Balmuildy (2189)
  • Location Unknown (2217 Fortunae et Numinibus Augustorum)

Friagabis

For the Goddess Friagabis, see the Alaisiagae.

Garmangabi

  • Lanchester (1074 et Num Aug)

Genius/Genius Loci/Genius Collegia/Genius Legionis/Genius Cohortis/Genius Centurionis

The Genii or 'guardian spirits' were thought to inhabit and protect certain locations, objects or organizations.

  • Chichester (90)
  • Cirencester (101, 102)
  • Gloucester (119)
  • Daglingworth (130 et Matribus)
  • Bath (139)
  • Lincoln (246)
  • Tilston, Grafton (444a)
  • Chester (446, 447, 448, 449, 450 et Sal Domin, 451)
  • Overborough (611 et Num Aug)
  • York (646, 647, 657 Num Aug et Gen Ebor, 662 in Greek, 706d, 706e with Neptune et Num Aug)
  • Malton (712) Clifton (792 et IOM) Maryport (812 Genio Loci et Fortuna Reduci, Roma Aetern & Fato Bono)
  • Carlisle (944 Genio Centuriae, 945 G. Loci)
  • Binchester (1032 Matribus Olloto Cartoval et Mars Vetto et Genio Loci)
  • Lanchester (1075 Genio Praetori, 1083 175-8AD; Num Aug et Gen Coh)
  • Ebchester (1099)
  • High Rochester (1268 Minerva et Genio Collegi)
  • Benwell (1334 238AD; Matribus Campestribus et Genio Alae)
  • Carrawburgh (1538, 1547, 1563a Nymphis et Genio Loci)
  • Housesteads (1577 Cocidius et Genio Praesidi)
  • Chesterholm/Vindolanda (1685 Genio Praetori, 1686 IOM et Gen Praetor, 1687 IOM et Genio, 1722d Mogunti et Genio Loci)
  • Castlesteads (1984 IOM et Genio Loci)
  • Auchendavy (2175 genio terrae Britannicae)

Gontrebi

  • Overborough (610)

Harimella

  • Birrens (2096)

Hercules

  • Silchester (67)
  • Brancaster (214b)
  • Brough-on-Noe (283a)
  • York (648)
  • Haile, Cumbria (796 et Silvanus)
  • Old Carlisle (892)
  • Carlisle (946 180-92AD)
  • Corbridge (1129 in Greek)
  • Whitley Castle (1199, 1200 Minerva et Hercules Victorius)
  • Risingham (1212, 1213, 1214, 1215 Hercules Invictus)
  • High Rochester (1264)
  • Housesteads (1580)
  • Burgh-by-Sands (2040 Hercules et Num Aug)
  • Mumrills (2139 Herculi Magusan)

Huiteris

Huiteris/Hueteris is another name for the god Veterus.

Hygaeia

  • Overborough (609 et Asclepius)

Ialanus

  • Lancaster (600)

Isis

  • London (39b)

Ioug.../Joug...

  • York (656 et Num Aug)

Juno

  • Carlisle (964b 213-22AD; IOM, Iuno Regina, Minerva Augusta, Mars Pater, Victoria Ceteris et Dis Deabus Omnibus)

Jupiter/IOM

  • London (39a)
  • Chichester (89)
  • Cirencester (103 296-315AD)
  • Godmanstone (190a)
  • Stony Stratford (215 et Volcanus)
  • Dorchester (235 et Num Aug)
  • Caerleon (319, 320 et Mars Dolichenus, 395b et Num Aug; 177-80AD)
  • Chester (452 IOM Tanatus; 154AD, 453)
  • Ilkley (634)
  • York (649 et Dis Deabusque)
  • Aldborough (708 et Matribus)
  • Kirkby Thore (761, 762 Jove Serapis)
  • Brougham (778)
  • Clifton (792 et Genio Loci)
  • Moresby (797)
  • Maryport (813-835 inclusive; 814/5 & 824/5 to IOM et Num Aug)
  • Old Carlisle (893-899 inclusive; 895 to IOM Dolichenus; 897 dated 242AD; 899 dated 238-244AD to IOM et Vlk)
  • Cardewlees (913 et Genii Dominorum Nostrorum)
  • Old Penrith (915 et Genius Domini Nostri, 916 IOM D, 917 178AD)
  • Carlisle (964b 213-22AD; IOM, Iuno Regina, Minerva Augusta, Mars Pater, Victoria Ceteris et Dis Deabus Omnibus)
  • Netherby (969)
  • Bewcastle (991, 992 IOM Dolicheno)
  • Cumberland Quarries (1017 IOM et Mars Toutatis)
  • Piercebridge (1021, 1022 217AD; IOM Dolycheno, 1027a IOM Dolicheno)
  • Binchester (1030 IOM et Matribus Ollototis Transmarinis, 1040b)
  • Lanchester (1076 IOM Ordinati, 1098a IOM?)
  • Corbridge (1130, 1131 Iovi Aeterno Dolicheno et Celestial Brigantia)
  • Risingham (1216, 1217, 1218, 1219 & 1220 IOM Dolichenus)
  • Wallsend (1299, 1300)
  • Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1316, 1317 et Numinibus)
  • Benwell (1330 139-61AD; IOM Dolichenus et Num Aug)
  • HW - Benwell to Rudchester (1366)
  • Chesters (1450, 1451, 1452 IOM Dol et Salut Aug)
  • Housesteads (1581, 1582, 1583 IOM et Cocidius, 1584-1588 IOM et Num Aug, 1589 258AD)
  • Chesterholm/Vindolanda (1686 IOM et Gen Praetor, 1687 IOM et Genio, 1688, 1689, 1690)
  • Great Chesters (1725 127-150AD?; IOM Doliceno, 1726 IOM D, 1727)
  • Carvoran (1782, 1783)
  • Birdoswald (1874-1896 inclusive: 1875 237AD, 1882 et num Aug, 1883 258-68AD, 1885 270-3AD; et Cocidius, 1886 258-68AD, 1892 212-22AD?, 1893 238-44AD, 1896 235-8AD; IOM D, 1929a 235-8AD; IOM D, 1929b 276-82AD)
  • Castlesteads (1979-1985 inclusive; 1983 241AD; IOM et Num Aug, 1984 IOM et Genio Loci)
  • Burgh-by-Sands (2041, 2042 253-8AD; IOM et Num Aug, )
  • Bowness-on-Solway (2056 251-3AD; IOM et Domini Nostri)
  • Hadrian's Wall (2062) Birrens (2097, 2098, 2099 IOM Dolicheno)
  • Cappuck (2117)
  • Newstead (2123)
  • Cramond (2134)
  • Croy Hill (2158 IOM Dolichenus)
  • Auchendavy (2176 IOM et Victoria)
  • Balmuildy (2201)
  • Old Kilpatrick (2213b)

Latus

  • Birdoswald (1897 dei Lati)
  • Burgh-by-Sands (2043 deo Lati)

Locum Religiosum

  • Bath (152)

Maponus

Maponus is a Germanic god often conflated with Apollo, and thus thought to share some of this Roman sun god's attributes. He is noted on only two inscriptions from Britain, although, based on place-name etymology, he may have had a center of worship somewhere in south-west Scotland, perhaps near Ladyward in Dumfries and Galloway.

  • Chesterholm/Vindolanda (1722b)
  • Hadrian's Wall (2063 Maponus et Num Aug)

Mars

  • Gloucester (120)
  • Chedworth (126 Mars Lenus)
  • Custom Scrubs (131 Mars Olludius)
  • Bath (140 Mars Loucetius)
  • West Coker (187 Mars Rigisamus)
  • Colchester (191 222-35AD; Mars Medocius)
  • Martlesham (213 Mars Coriotacus)
  • Stony Stratford (216, 217)
  • Barkway (218 Mars Alatoridum, 219 Mars Toutatiti)
  • Nettleham, nr. Lincoln (245b Mars Rigonemetis et Num Aug)
  • Lincoln (248)
  • Foss Dike (274 et Num Aug)
  • Bakewell (278 Mars Braciacae)
  • Brough-on-Noe (282)
  • Caerwent (309 23 Aug 152AD; Mars Lenus sive Ocelus Vellaunus, 310 Mars Ocelus)
  • Chester (454 Mars Conservator)
  • Ribchester (584 Mars Paciferus, 585 et Victory)
  • Lancaster (601, 602 Mars Cocidius)
  • Cockersand Moss (616 Mars Donotus)
  • Staincross Common (622)
  • York (650, 651)
  • Malton (711 Mars Riga)
  • Bowes (731 Mars Condatus)
  • Greta Bridge (742 Mars Enemnogenus, 743)
  • Brougham (779 Mars et Victoria, 780, 783 Mars Aug)
  • Maryport (837 & 838 Mars Militaris)
  • Old Carlisle (891 Mars Aur, 900)
  • Old Penrith (918 Mars Belatucader et Num Aug)
  • Carlisle (948 Marti Belatucadro, 949 Marti Ocelo, 950 Marti Victoriae)
  • Netherby (970 Mars Belatucader)
  • Bewcastle (993 & 997a Mars Cocid)
  • Cumberland Quarries (1017 IOM et Mars Toutatis)
  • Piercebridge (1024 Mars Condatus)
  • Binchester (1032 Matribus Olloto Cartoval et Mars Vetto et Genio Loci)
  • Chester-le-Street (1045 Mars Condatus)
  • South Shields (1055)
  • Lanchester (1077, 1078, 1079, 1080, 1081, 1082 Mars Cocidius?)
  • Ebchester (1100 Mars et Num Aug)
  • Risingham (1221 & 1222 Mars Victor, 1223?)
  • Wallsend (1303 Mars? Sigil)
  • Benwell (1332 Mars Lenus, 1333 Mars Victor)
  • Carrawburgh (1539 Mars Dolichenus?)
  • Housesteads (1590-1597 inclusive; 1593 Mars Thincsus et Alaisagis et Fimmilene et Num Aug, 1594 Mars et Alaisiagis et Num Aug, 1595 Mars et Victoria, 1596 Mars et Victoria et Num Aug, 1597 Mars Calve...)
  • Chesterholm/Vindolanda (1691 Mars Victor)
  • Carvoran (1784 Mars Belatucairo, 1786? Deo M... et Num Aug, 1787? D M... - last two may be Mercury)
  • Birdoswald (1898, 1899 Mars et Victoria, 1900 Mars Augustus, 1901 Mars Patrus)
  • Castlesteads (1986 Mars Sanguinus, 1987 Mars S et Num Aug)
  • HW - Castlesteads to Stanwix (2015 Mars Cocidius, 2024 Mars Coc)
  • Burgh-by-Sands (2044 Mars Belatucader)
  • Birrens (2100 Mars et Victoria, 2101 Mars Sanctus/Sanguinus?)
  • Cramond (2137a Mars Condatus)
  • Croy Hill (2159)
  • Bar Hill, Dunbarton (2166 Mars Camulos)
  • Balmuildy (2190)

Matres/Matribus

  • London (2)
  • Chichester (96a Matribus Domest)
  • Dover (65b Matribus Italicis)
  • Winchester (88 Matribus Italis Germanis Gal et Brit)
  • Daglingworth (130 et Genio Loci)
  • Colchester (192 Matribus Sulevis)
  • Chester (455, 456)
  • Heronbridge (574 Matribus Ollototae)
  • Ribchester (586)
  • Doncaster (618)
  • Adel (629)
  • York (652 Matribus Domesticis, 653 Mat Af Ita Ga, 654)
  • Aldborough (708 et IOM)
  • Catterick (729a Matribus Domesti)
  • Skinburness (881)
  • Old Carlisle (901 222-35AD)
  • Old Penrith (919 Matribus Tramarinis; 222-35AD, 920 Matribus Tramari)
  • Carlisle (951 Matrib Par, 964b 213-22AD; IOM, Iuno Regina, Minerva Augusta, Mars Pater, Victoria Ceteris et Dis Deabus Omnibus)
  • Binchester (1030 IOM et Matribus Ollototis Transmarinis, 1031 Matribus Ollototis, 1032 Matribus Olloto Cartoval et Mars Vetto et Genio Loci, 1033, 1034)
  • Risingham (1224 Matribus Tramarinis)
  • Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1318 Matribus Tramarinis, 1322a)
  • Benwell (1334 238AD; Matribus Campestribus et Genio Alae)
  • HW - Rudchester to Halton Chesters (1421)
  • Halton Chesters (1424)
  • Chesters (1453 Matribus Commun)
  • Carrawburgh (1540, 1541 Matribus Commun)
  • Housesteads (1598)
  • Chesterholm/Vindolanda (1692 Matribus et Num Domini Nostri, 1722a)
  • Carvoran (1785)
  • Birdoswald (1902)
  • Castlesteads (1988 Matribus Omnium, 1989 Matribus Tramarinis)
  • Stanwix (2025)
  • HW - Burgh-by-Sands to Drumburgh (2050 Matri Dom)
  • HW - Drumburgh to Bowness-on-Solway (2055 Matribus suis)
  • Bowness-on-Solway (2059)
  • Hadrian's Wall (2064 Matribus Germanis)
  • Cramond (2135 Matribus Alateruis et Matribus Campestribus)
  • Mumrills (2141 Sign Matribus)
  • Castlecary (2147)

Matunus

  • High Rochester (1265 213AD;)

Mercury

Greek Hermes was numbered among the twelve Olympian gods, and was later identified by the Romans with their own god Mercury. He was a bastard son of Zeus/Jupiter and his mother was Maia, a daughter of Atlas. He was born during darkness in a cave on Mount Kyllene in Arcadia, on the fourth day of the month, which day was later named after him. Shortly after his birth the godlet Hermes for a joke stole the cattle of the god Apollo, who soon discovered his wrongdoing and brought charges against him before their father Zeus. The beguiling child immediately produced a lyre he had previously made from a tortoise shell and proceeded to play upon it, delighting both his father and his step-brother. He afterwards presented the lyre to Apollo the god of music, reserving for himself the Shepherd's Pipes which he had invented also, whereupon his step-brother immediately forgave his jesting and thereafter the two became great allies. This story is often explained as clouds - the cattle of the sun god Apollo - being dissipated by precipitation during the night, caused by Hermes the god of rain. The young, mischievious god often played jokes on his fellow deities, stealing, for example, the sceptre of Zeus, the girdle of Aphrodite, the trident of Poseidon, the sword of Ares, the iron-working tongs of Hephaestos, and the bow of Apollo, each time managing to extricate himself from trouble and ingratiate himself with the target of his japes by his ready wit and good humour. He accompanied Zeus through Phrygia in the story of Philemon and Baukis, and was often despatched on various errands by his father, frequently acting as messenger between the gods and mortal men. He was despatched by Zeus with the infant Bakchos (Bacchus, Dionysos) to the Nymphs of Nysa who protected the child from the wrath of Hera. Hermes was also charged by Zeus to release his lover Io from surveillance by Argos the Hundred-eyed, one of the sons of Oceanus, a task he must undertake without the use of force because the giant had been set to this task by suspicious Hera, who had discovered Io's identity and wished to catch the lovers together. Hermes responded to his father's command by entering the olive-grove in which Io had been tethered - she was disguised as a white-horned cow at the time - and proceeded to entertain the giant river-god with jokes and amusing stories, then, producing his Shepherd's Pipes, he lulled his unuspecting patron into closing his hundred eyelids one-by-one until he slept, Hermes then despatched the dozing Argos and led the ruminating Io away. This story is often explained in the following manner: the hundred eyes of Argos represent the stars and Io the white-horned cow represents the moon, and when it rains at night, the first thing to disappear are the stars, followed by the moon led-away by the rainclouds sent by Hermes. In this story it is possible that Io may be one of the guises of Diana the moon goddess, Zeus' own daughter, so it is no wonder that Hera was so upset at the incestual relationship between her husband and daughter. Hermes was at first venerated as the god of flocks and herds, later the god of agricultural wealth, whence god of rain, which led to his becoming god of commerce; his playfulness and cunning also prompted thieves, robbers and conmen to hail him as their patron god, although this fact was never officially commemorated. As god of commerce it was Hermes' duty to look after the roads which promoted the transport of goods between cities, and as a consequence he was worshipped throughout the Hellenistic world at each cross-roads, where upright pillars called Herms were erected. This phallic representation of the god was continued by the Romans, who often adapted the upright pillars to include the name of the emperor and/or the distance to the nearest towns; the Roman habit of constructing milestones then, may have started as veneration of the Greek god Hermes, known to the Latins as Mercury, and celebrated with a festival in his honour on 25th of May. Milestones apart, worship of the Roman deity is generally far less widespread than that of his Greek counterpart.

  • Charterhouse on Mendip (184 Deo Mercuris?)
  • Old Harlow (190c)
  • Caister-on-Sea (214a)
  • Leicester (244)
  • Lydney, Michaelchurch (305 Mercurio? Nodontus, 307 Nudens Mercurius?)
  • Caerleon (321)
  • York (655)
  • Carlisle (952; relief)
  • Corbridge (1133)
  • Chesterholm/Vindolanda (1693)
  • Carvoran (1786? Deo M... et Num Aug, 1787? D M... - these two may be Mars)
  • Birrens (2102, 2103 Num Aug deo Merc)
  • Castlecary (2148)

Minerva

  • Fishbourne, Chichester (91 et Neptune)
  • Bath (141 & 150 et Sulis)
  • Caernarfon (429)
  • Chester (457)
  • Carlisle (964b 213-22AD; IOM, Iuno Regina, Minerva Augusta, Mars Pater, Victoria Ceteris et Dis Deabus Omnibus)
  • Ebchester (1101 13-22AD)
  • Corbridge (1134)
  • Whitley Castle (1200 Menerva et Hercules Victorius)
  • High Rochester (1266, 1267, 1268 Minerva et Genio Collegi)
  • Benwell (1352a)
  • Carrawburgh (1542, 1543)
  • Carvoran (1788? or Neptune)
  • Castlesteads (1976 Belatugagro ar Minerv)
  • Birrens (2104)

Mithras/Sol Invictus/Sol

  • London (3, 4)
  • Caerleon (322)
  • Ilkley (639a?)
  • Corbridge (1137 162-8AD; Sol Invictus)
  • High Rochester (1272 218-222AD; Sol Invictus)
  • Rudchester (1395 Invicto Mytrae, 1396 Sol Invictus, 1397 Sol, Apollo, Anicetus, Mithras, 1398?)
  • Carrawburgh (1544 Inv M, 1545 In M, 1546 Invicto Mitrae)
  • Housesteads (1599 Sol Invictus Mytrae, 1600 252AD; Sol Invictus Mytrae, 1601 Sol)
  • Castlesteads (1992 Sol Invictus, 1993 Sol Invictus Mithras, 1994 Sol Mithras)

Mogti/Mounti/Mogont/Mogunt

  • Old Penrith (921 Mogti, 922 Mounti)
  • Netherby (971 Mogont Vitire)
  • Risingham (1225 Mogonito, 1226 Mouno)
  • High Rochester (1269 Mountibus)
  • Chesterholm/Vindolanda (1722d Mogunti et Genio Loci)

Nemesis

  • Caerleon (323)
  • Chester (573b)
  • Hadrian's Wall (2065)

Neptunus

  • Lympne (66)
  • Fishbourne, Chichester (91 et Minerva)
  • York (706e with Num Aug et Genio Loci)
  • Maryport (839)
  • Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1319)
  • Chesterholm/Vindolanda (1694)
  • Carvoran (1788? or Minerva)
  • Birdoswald (1929d)
  • Castlesteads (1990)
  • Birrens (2105)
  • Castlecary (2149)

Nodens

  • Lydney, Michaelchurch (305 Mercurio? Nodontus, 306 Nodentus, 307 Nudens Mercurius?)

Num Caes/Num Aug

  • London (5)
  • Somerdale Keynsham (181 155AD)
  • Old Harlow (190b)
  • Colchester (193)
  • Dorchester (235 et IOM)
  • Nettleham (245b et Mars Rigonemetis)
  • Lincoln (247 et Parcae)
  • Foss Dike (274 et Mars)
  • Caerleon (324, 326 198-209AD, 327 244AD, 395b et IOM; 177-80AD)
  • Chester (458, 459)
  • Overborough (611 et Genio)
  • Slack, Outlane (623 et Brigantia)
  • Greetland (627 208AD; Victoria Brigantia et Num Aug)
  • Scarcroft (633a et Apollo)
  • York (640 et Arciacon, 656 et Ioug..., 657 et Gen Ebor, 706e with Neptune et Genio Loci)
  • Aldborough (710a Divo Antonino Magno)
  • Maryport (815 & 824/5 to IOM et Num Aug)
  • Bollihope Common (1041 Num Aug et Silvanus Invictus)
  • South Shields (1056 ... sancte et numinibus augg)
  • Lanchester (1074 et Garmangabi, 1083 175-8AD; Num Aug et Gen Coh)
  • Ebchester (1100 Mars et Num Aug)
  • Risingham (1227)
  • High Rochester (1262 Genio Domini Nostri et Signorum Coh, 1263 Genio et Signis Coh)
  • Benwell (1330 139-61AD; IOM Dolichenus et Num Aug)
  • Halton Chesters (1425)
  • Housesteads (1576 Alaisiagis Boudihillia et Friagabis et Num Aug, 1584-1588 IOM et Num Aug, 1593 Mars Thincsus et Alaisagis et Fimmilene et Num Aug, 1594 Mars et Alaisiagis et Num Aug, 1596 Mars et Victoria et Num Aug)
  • Chesterholm/Vindolanda (1692 Matribus et Num Domini Nostri, 1700 Domu Divinae et Num Aug Volcano)
  • Birdoswald (1882 IOM et num Aug, 1902 Signis et Num Aug, 1911 212-7AD; pro salute dominus noster)
  • Castlesteads (1983 241AD; IOM et Num Aug, 1987 Mars S et N G Aug, 1991 N Aug deo Vanaunti)
  • Burgh-by-Sands (2040 Hercules et Num Aug, 2042 253-8AD; IOM et Num Aug)
  • Bowness-on-Solway (2056 251-3AD; IOM et Domini Nostri, 2058 251-3AD)
  • Hadrian's Wall (2063 Maponus et Num Aug)
  • Birrens (2103 Num Aug deo Merc)
  • Location Unknown (2217 Fortunae et Numinibus Augustorum)

Nux/Nyx

  • Westwood (2157 Nux)

Nymphae

  • Chester (460 et Fontibus)
  • Castleford (628a)
  • Greta Bridge (744)
  • Carrawburgh (1547, 1563a Nymphis et Genio Loci)
  • Carvoran (1789)
  • Hadrian's Wall (2066 212-17AD; Nymphae Brig)
  • Croy Hill (2160)

Oceanus

  • York (663 et Tethys; in Greek)
  • Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1320)

Ocelus

  • Carlisle (949 Marti Ocelo)

Onirus

  • Greta Bridge (745)

Pacis (Peace)

  • High Rochester (1271 251-3AD; Victoria et Pacis)

Panthea/Pantheus

  • Corbridge (1135)
  • High Rochester (1271 Silvanus Pantheus)

Parcae

  • Lincoln (247 et Num Aug)
  • Carlisle (953)

Priapus

  • Birrens (2106)

Quadruis caelestibus sacrum

  • Westerwood, Cumbernauld (2164a Silvanis et quadruis caelestibus sacrum)

Ricagumbeda

  • Birrens (2107 Ricagumbedae)

Regina

  • Lemington (125)
  • Lanchester (1084)
  • Chesters (1448 Bona Dea et Regina Caelesti)
  • Carvoran (1827 Reginae Caelesti)

Roma

A common surname of Roma was Aeternae.

  • Maryport (812 Roma Aetern et Genio Loci, Fortuna Reduci & Fato Bono, 840 Roma Aeternae et Fortuna Reduci)
  • High Rochester (1270 D R S)

Romulus

  • Custom Scrubs (132)

Sattade

  • Chesterholm/Vindolanda (1695)

Saturnus

  • Halton Chesters (1432 Saturnn)

Serapis

  • York (658)
  • Kirkby Thore (762 Jove Serapis)

Signorum/Signum

  • High Rochester (1262 Genio Domini Nostri et Signorum Coh, 1263 Genio et Signis Coh)
  • Wallsend (1303 Mars? Sigil)
  • Birdoswald (1902 Signis et Num Aug)
  • Mumrills (2141 Sign Matribus)

Silvanus

  • Cirencester (104)
  • Colchester (194, 195)
  • Hereford (303)
  • York (659)
  • Bowes (732 & 733a Vinotonus Silvanus)
  • Kirkby Thore (763)
  • Haile, Cumbria (796 et Hercules)
  • Moresby (798)
  • Old Penrith (923, 924)
  • Netherby (972)
  • Bollihope Common (1041 Num Aug et Silvanus Invictus)
  • Eastgate, Durham (1042)
  • Lanchester (1085)
  • Corbridge (1136)
  • Risingham (1207 et Cocidius)
  • High Rochester (1271 Silvanus Pantheus)
  • Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1321)
  • Housesteads (1578 Silvanus Cocidius)
  • Chesterholm/Vindolanda (1696)
  • Carvoran (1790)
  • Carvoran to Birdoswald (1870)
  • Birdoswald (1905)
  • Newstead (2124)
  • Westerwood, Cumbernauld (2164a Silvanis et quadruis caelestibus sacrum)
  • Bar Hill, Dunbarton (2167)
  • Auchendavy (2178)
  • Cadder, Kilsyth (2187)

Somnus

  • Risingham (1228)

Soter

  • Chester (461 in Greek)

Sulevis

  • Cirencester (105, 106)
  • Bath (151)
  • Colchester (192 Matribus Sulevis)

Sulis

  • Bath (141 et Minerva, 143-147, 148 Anicetus Suli, 149, 150 et Minerva, 178a)

Suria/Syria

  • Catterick (726)
  • Carvoran (1791 Ceres Dea Syria, 1792 163-6AD; Suriae)

Terminus

  • Caerleon (325)

Tethys

  • York (663 et Oceanus; in Greek)

Toutatis

  • Cumberland Quarries (1017 IOM et Mars Toutatis)

Tridamus

  • Michaelchurch (304)

Vanauntus

  • Castlesteads (1991 N Aug deo Vanaunti)

Verbeia

  • Ilkley (635)

Vernostonus

  • Ebchester (1102 Vernostono Cocidio)

Veterus/Vitiris/Vheterus/Huetiris/Hueterus

  • Netherby (973 Huetiri)
  • Carrawburgh (1549 Huiteribus)
  • Housesteads (1602 Hueteri, 1603 Huitri)
  • Hadrian's Wall (2096 Huiteribus)
  • Catterick (727)
  • Netherby (971 Mogont Vitire)
  • Chester-le-Street (1046 Vitiri, 1047 Vitiribus, 1048 Vitbus)
  • South Shields (1070c Ansu Vitiri)
  • Lanchester (1087, 1088)
  • Ebchester (1103 & 1104 Vitiri)
  • Corbridge (1139 Veteri, 1140 Vitiri, 1141 Vit)
  • Benwell (1335 Vetri, 1336 Vitirbus)
  • Chesters (1455 Vitiri, 1456 Veteribus, 1457 Vitirbus, 1458 Votris?)
  • Carrawburgh (1548 Veteri)
  • Housesteads (1604 & 1605 & 1606 & 1607 Veteribus)
  • Chesterholm/Vindolanda (1697 Veteri, 1698 Veteri, 1699 Veteribus, 1722e & 1722f Veteribus)
  • Great Chesters (1728 Vetiri, 1729 & 1730 Veteribus)
  • Carvoran (1793-5 Veteri, 1796 Vetiri, 1797 Vetiriu, 1798 Viterino, 1799-1801 Vitiri, 1802/3 Veteribus, 1804 Viteribus, 1805 Vitiribus)
  • Hadrian's Wall (2068 Veteri)

Victoria

  • Tunshill Park (582)
  • Ribchester (585 et Mars, 590 et Salve Imp)
  • Greetland (627 208AD; Victoria Brigantia et Num Aug)
  • Castleford (628 Victoria Brigantia)
  • Brougham (779 with Mars?)
  • Maryport (842-844 Victoria Augusta)
  • Carlisle (950 Marti Victoriae, 964b 213-22AD; IOM, Iuno Regina, Minerva Augusta, Mars Pater, Victoria Ceteris et Dis Deabus Omnibus)
  • Lanchester (1086)
  • Corbridge (1138)
  • High Rochester (1271 251-3AD; Victoria et Pacis)
  • Benwell (1337 205-8AD; Victoria Aug)
  • Housesteads (1595 Mars et Victoria, 1596 Mars et Victoria et Num Aug)
  • Great Chesters (1731 Victoria Aug)
  • Birdoswald (1899 Mars et Victoria)
  • Castlesteads (1995 Vict Aug)
  • Birrens (2100 Mars et Victoria)
  • Rough Castle (2144)
  • Auchendavy (2176 IOM et Victoria, 2177)
  • Balmuildy (2190 139-61AD; relief of victory)
  • Old Kilpatrick (2208 139-61AD; relief of victory)

Viradecthis

  • Birrens (2108)

Vinotonus

  • Bowes (732 & 733a Vinotonus Silvanus, 733, 737) - also possibly 734-738

Viridius

  • Ancaster (245a)

Virtue

  • Maryport (845 Virtutia Augusta)

Volcanus

  • Stony Stratford (215 et Iovi)
  • Maryport (846 Numini Volcani)
  • Old Carlisle (899 dated 238-244AD; to IOM et Vlk?)
  • Chesterholm/Vindolanda (1700 Domu Divinae et Num Aug Volcano?)

See also

References

See Roman Britain Website link below.

Bibliography

  • Classical Dictionary of John Lempriére (London 1850)
  • Classical Mythology by A.R. Hope Moncrieff (London 1907)
  • Greece and Rome - Myths and Legends by H.A. Guerber (London 1907)
  • The Roman Inscriptions of Britain by R.G. Collingwood and R.P. Wright (Oxford 1965)
  • The Gods of the Celts by Miranda Green (Sutton 1986)
  • Celtic - Myths and Legends by T.W. Rolleston (Senate reprint (1994)
  • Who's Who in Mythology by Alexander S. Murray (Bracken reprint 1995)
  • The Ultimate Encyclopaedia of Mythology by Arthur Cotterell & Rachel Storm (Hermes 1999)

External links