Lex Terentia: On the Collegium Pontificum its role and operations towards establishing Pax Deorum

PROPOSAL RATIFIED Dec. Sex. Decio Q. Furio Cos. 

Defining Sacra Publica (Observance of the gods on behalf of the community)

  1. As stated in the Declaration of the Roman Republic a spiritual community of Romans (also regarded as the modern Roman civitas) exists today under the name of the Roman Republic.
  2. It is right for any community which recognizes the deiform sovereignty of the gods and goddesses of the ancient Roman people to seek their patronage as a collective community unit. The establishment of such communication and establishment of a client (community) to patron (god) relationship is the essence of Pax Deorum (Peace of the Gods).
  3. Jointly the members of the spiritual community (civitas) of Romans recognized by the Roman Republic have the right to consent to designated bodies to act on their collective behalf towards establishing and maintaining Pax Deorum.
  4. Any ceremony or tradition conducted with the following is to be regarded as Sacara Publica:
    1. The objective is Pax Deorum
    2. Performed on behalf of the Roman Republic spiritual community (civitas)
    3. Performed in a manner authorized by the accepted leadership of the Roman Republic spiritual community (civitas)
      1. Such leadership ultimately rests with the Comitia Tributa or Senate of the Roman Republic
        1. Daily leadership is to be supported by the Collegium Pontificum which is to act as an expert advisory body to the Roman Republic’s spiritual community (civitas).
        2. Daily leadership is to be supported by officers of the Roman Republic which act as representatives of the community when the Senate or Comitia Tributa is not in session.
        3. The Collegium Pontifictum together with the Senate may authorize additional consultative bodies of leadership ad hoc

 

Purpose of the Collegium Pontificum:

  1. A Collegium Pontificum (CP) is to be established within the Roman Republic. Its duty is the preservation and continuation of public ceremonies and practices honoring the gods and goddesses of ancient Rome from the past into the future.
    1. The CP is to ensure three primary interests of the international spiritual community (civitas) of the Roman Republic;
      1. That any sacra publica ceremony, rite, procedure or protocol observed today would have been recognizable (disregarding language barriers) to an ancient Roman living in the city of Rome between the period of 753 BCE to 382 CE. 
        1. These aspects should be theoretically recognizable to a hypothetical ancient Roman as a continuation of the ancient Roman public religions albeit not necessarily identical to these practices due to historical and modern barriers and practicalities
        2. These practices should respect common ancient principles wherever possible.
      2. To see that any ceremony, rite, procedure, or protocol is performed in order to preserve and safeguard; sacrum, sanctum, and religiosum of the Sacra Publica. Is to also determine what is profanum, not sanctum, and not religiosum within the Sacra Publica.
      3. Ensure Pax Deorum of the greater Roman national and spiritual community (civitas) is maintained regardless of geographic residence. To translate history and theory of the Cultus Deorum Romanorum into modern albeit historically mindful practice that can be reliably and routinely conducted.
  2. Towards the aforementioned aims the Collegium Pontificum is the primary advisory body to the Senate and all citizens of the Roman Republic on the following topics:
    1. The arrangement of gentes within the spiritual Roman community (civitas) of the Roman Republic.
    2. Organization of the Roman Republic calendar 
    3. The founding of additional religious collegia 
      1. Once founded, religious collegia are to be self governing and independent of the CP, unless choosing to be subordinate to the CP in their founding charters.
    4. The recording of events within the Roman Republic
    5. Development and promotion of the sacra publica and Cultus Deorum Romanorum in general.
    6. On all matters pertaining to the sacra publica which are not delegated to other authorities and bodies by the Senate or Comitia Curiata.
  3. The following priesthoods once/if created will be part of the CP and regulated by this body:
    1. Ex officio members:
      1. Vestal
      2. Flamen
      3. Rex Sacrorum and Regina Sacrorum
      4. Pontifex Maximus
      5. Pontifex
    2. Observational probationary members:
      1. Pontifex Minor
    3. Optional temporary roles filled by already existing members:
      1. Proflamen 
      2. Pontifex Pro Magistro
  4. No member of the CP may hold more than one Ex officio or probationary position concurrently 

 

Membership Selection and Composition:

  • Pontifex Maximus (One Member)
    1. Holds a term lasting for life
      1. Once inaugurated they are to vacate the role they originally held within the CP.
    2. The CP will be chaired by the Pontifex Maximus. 
      1. If no member of the CP hold the priesthood of Pontifex Maximus, the CP is to elect a Pontifex Pro Magistro to chair the CP.
    3. Responsibilities of the Pontifex Maximus: 
      1. To ensure everything outlined in the purpose section of this lex is carried out
      2. To organize and ensure the operation of the CP
      3. To promote and educate on the Cultus Deorum Romanorum
      4. To represent the CP in their person
      5. To assist with the conduct of ceremonies for the sacra publica of the Roman Republic
      6. To develop all cults publicly deemed important to the preservation of Pax Deorum
    4. Powers of the Pontifex Maximus:
      1. Has the authority to fine upto 50% of a CP member’s total denarii balance on a monthly basis or authorize a status change in CP members to and from capitis absens
      2. Has the authority to request a vote in the senate to authorize exauguration of a member of the CP
      3. Has the ability to take auspices with supervision of an augur
      4. May request meetings of the Comitia Curiata
      5. Is to be nominated for membership in the Comitia Curiata
      6. May summon a meeting of the CP or any religious collegia recognized by the Senate
      7. Is to chair any meetings of the CP where they are present 
      8. Holds two votes within the CP
      9. Appoint or remove a Pontifex Pro Magistro at any time
      10. May appoint or remove a Proflamen from any member of the CP when a flamen is unavailable
    5. Selection of a Pontifex Maximus
      1. Is to be nominated from amongst pontifex members of the CP in an election held by the CP. This election is to be held in private and only open to members of the CP.
        1. If the CP is unable to elect a Pontifex Maximus, the Senate may nominate a candidate for the position.
      2. All nominated candidates require a minimum of 50% support of the tribes voting in the Comitia Tributa in order to be affirmed as a candidate.
      3. Once affirmed as a candidate by the Comitia Tributa, the nominee must be inaugurated with auspices validated by an augur recognized by the senate of the Roman Republic.
    6. Removal of a Pontifex Maximus
      1. The Pontifex Maximus is regarded as no longer living or a Roman citizen if they become incensus. In this case their position in the CP is deemed vacated.
        1. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to all of the capitoline triad.
      2. The CP may request the Senate by ⅔ majority vote to authorize exauguration of the Pontifex Maximus. If ⅔ of the Senate confirms this request the Comitia Centuriata is to be summoned and if a majority of the centuries responding agree, the Pontifex Maximus is to be exaugurated by an augur recognized by the senate of the Roman Republic.
        1. The Pontifex Maximus is only revoked of their position with positive auspices to this question
        2. Any pontifex maximus who has their priesthood revoked is regarded as capitis absens for life unless pardoned by both a censorial edict and the CP.
        3. Any pontifex maximus that is removed is also removed from the CP.
        4. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to all of the capitoline triad.
      3. If a pontifex maximus resigns their position, they are to be exaugurated by an augur recognized by the senate of the Roman Republic.
        1. The Pontifex Maximus is only revoked of their position with positive auspices to this question
        2. Any pontifex maximus who resigns is regarded as capitis absens for life unless pardoned by both a censorial edict and the CP.
        3. Any pontifex maximus who resigns is removed from the CP.
        4. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to all of the capitoline triad.
  • Pontifex Pro Magistro (One Member – Optional)
    1. Holds a term of one year counted from the date of their election.
      1. While elected this individual is to continue their original role on the CP in addition to the responsibilities of Pontifex Pro Magistro
    2. Selection of the Pontifex Pro Magistro
      1. Is to be selected from amongst members of the CP in an election held by the CP. This election is to be held in private and only open to members of the CP.
        1. An election may only occur if the Pontifex Maximus is indisposed, non-existent, or upon the request of a Pontifex Maximus
      2. If a Pontifex Maximus exists, they may appoint a Pontifex Pro Magistro without an election. 
    3. Removal of the Pontifex Pro Magistro
      1. May be removed by ⅔ vote of the CP or upon the request of Pontifex Maximus
      2. Upon the end of their term and if not re-elected.
      3. Once removed this individual returns to their original role in the CP.
    4. The Pontifex Pro Magistro holds all responsibilities of the Pontifex Maximus. 
    5. The Pontifex Pro Magistro is authorized with the following powers of the Pontifex Maximus during their term:
      1. Has the authority to fine upto 25% of a CP member’s total denarii balance on a monthly basis or authorize a status change in CP members to and from capitis absens
      2. Has the authority to request a vote in the senate to authorize exauguration of a member of the CP
      3. Has the ability to take auspices with supervision of an augur
      4. May request meetings of the Comitia Curiata
      5. May summon a meeting of the CP or any religious collegia recognized by the Senate
      6. Is to chair any meetings of the CP where they are present and no Pontifex Maximus is available
      7. May appoint a proflamen from any member of the CP when a flamen is unavailable
      8. May remove a proflamen at any time.
  • Pontifex (Maximum of 15 members)
    1. Holds a term lasting for life, unless elected Pontifex Maximus
    2. Responsibilities of the Pontifex: 
      1. To ensure everything outlined in the purpose section of this lex is carried out
      2. To promote and educate on the Cultus Deorum Romanorum
      3. To assist with the conduct of ceremonies for the sacra publica of the Roman Republic
      4. To develop all cults publicly deemed important to the preservation of Pax Deorum
    3. Powers of the Pontifex:
      1. Holds two votes within the CP
    4. Selection of a Pontifex 
      1. Is to be selected from amongst existing Pontifex Minores in an election held by the CP. If no Pontifex Minores exist then the CP may nominate candidates. If the CP is unable to meet to appoint a new pontifex, the Senate or Comitia Curiata may nominate candidates. Any such election is to be held in private and only open to members attending the meeting in question.
      2. Once affirmed as a candidate by CP, the nominee must be inaugurated with auspices validated by an augur recognized by the senate of the Roman Republic.
    5. Removal of a Pontifex
      1. The Pontifex is regarded as no longer living or a Roman citizen if they become incensus. In this case their position in the CP is deemed vacated.
        1. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to all of the capitoline triad.
      2. The CP may request the Senate by ⅔ majority vote to authorize exauguration of a Pontifex Maximus. If ⅔ of the Senate confirms this request the Pontifex is to be exaugurated by an augur recognized by the senate of the Roman Republic.
        1. The Pontifex is only revoked of their position with positive auspices to this question
        2. Any pontifex who has their priesthood revoked is regarded as capitis absens for life unless pardoned by both a censorial edict and the CP.
        3. Any pontifex that is removed is also removed from the CP.
        4. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to all of the capitoline triad.
      3. If a pontifex resigns their position, they are to be exaugurated by an augur recognized by the senate of the Roman Republic.
        1. The Pontifex is only revoked of their position with positive auspices to this question
        2. Any pontifex who resigns is regarded as capitis absens for life unless pardoned by both a censorial edict and the CP.
        3. Any pontifex who resigns is removed from the CP.
        4. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to all of the capitoline triad.
  • Rex Sacrorum and Regina Sacrorum (One member for each priesthood)
    1. Holds a term lasting for life or until widowed or divorced
    2. Responsibilities of the Rex Sacrorum and Regina Sacrorum: 
      1. To ensure everything outlined in the purpose section of this lex is carried out
      2. To promote and educate on the Cultus Deorum Romanorum
      3. To assist with the conduct of ceremonies for the sacra publica of the Roman Republic
        1. To attend to developing and maintaining the Cult of Ianus 
        2. To attend to any other ceremonies deemed needed by the CP
      4. To perform a ceremony on the Kalends of every month
      5. To announce the dates from one nones to the next on each nones publicly in all fora
    3. Powers of the Rex Sacrorum and Regina Sacrorum:
      1. Each holds one vote within the CP
    4. Selection of a Rex Sacrorum and Regina Sacrorum 
      1. Are to be selected as a pair and must be legally married and also have a Roman marriage recognized by the CP
      2. To be elected as a pair by the CP
      3. The pair must be inaugurated by an auger recognized by the senate 
      4. If the CP has a Pontifex Maximus they must approve of all candidates in order to be eligible for inauguration. 
    5. Removal of a Rex Sacrorum and Regina Sacrorum
      1. The both the Rex Sacrorum and Regina Sacrorum are dismissed if one is incensus – regarded as no longer living or a Roman citizen. In this case their position in the CP is deemed vacated.
        1. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to all of the capitoline triad.
      2. If one of the pair dies, is removed as Rex or Regina, or is no longer a Roman citizen or the couple is divorced the remaining partner is automatically dismissed from this role without penalties.
      3. The CP may request the Senate by ⅔ majority vote to authorize exauguration of the pair. If ⅔ of the Senate confirms this request the Rex Sacrorum and Regina Sacrorum are  to be both exaugurated by an augur recognized by the senate of the Roman Republic.
        1. The Rex Sacrorum and Regina Sacrorum are revoked of their position as a pair with positive auspices to this question
        2. Any Rex Sacrorum and Regina Sacrorum who has their priesthood revoked through this means is regarded as capitis absens for life unless pardoned by both a censorial edict and the CP.
        3. Any Rex Sacrorum and Regina Sacrorum that is removed is also removed from the CP.
        4. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to all of the capitoline triad and Ianus.
      4. If a Rex Sacrorum or Regina Sacrorum resigns their position, the pair is to be exaugurated by an augur recognized by the senate of the Roman Republic.
        1. The Rex Sacrorum or Regina Sacrorum who resigns is regarded as capitis absens for life unless pardoned by both a censorial edict and the CP. However both are to have resigned their position. 
        2. The pair is to be removed from the CP.
        3. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to all of the capitoline triad and Ianus.
      5. Once inaugurated the Rex Sacrorum or Regina Sacrorum may not serve as Censor, Consul, Praetor, Aedile, Tribune, or Quaestor under any circumstances.
  1. Flamen Maiores (Maximum of four members)
    1. There shall be one member appointed to each of the following:
      1. Flamen Dialis and Flaminica Dialis dedicated to Iupiter
        1. Holds a term lasting for life or until their partner is no longer a flamen/flaminica dialis
      2. Flamen Martialis dedicated to Mars
        1. Holds a term lasting for life
      3. The Flamen Quirinalis dedicated the Quirinius
        1. Holds a term lasting for life
    2. Responsibilities of the Flamen Maiores
      1. To ensure everything outlined in the purpose section of this lex is carried out
      2. To promote and educate on the Cultus Deorum Romanorum
      3. To assist with the conduct of ceremonies for the sacra publica of the Roman Republic as defined by the CP
      4. To represent their respective cults in their person and their public activities and to develop these cults publicly
    3. Powers of the Flamen Maiores:
      1. Each holds two votes within the CP
        1. Except for the Flamen Dialis and Flaminica Dialis which each holds one vote within the CP
      2. May appoint and remove proflamen from any other member of the CP to act on their own behalf when unavailable.
    4. Selection of a Flamen Maiores: 
      1. Is to be selected from amongst existing Pontifex Minores in an election held by the CP. If no Pontifex Minores exist then the CP may nominate candidates. Any such election is to be held in private and only open to members attending the meeting in question.
      2. Once affirmed, the nominee must be inaugurated by auspices validated by an augur recognized by the senate of the Roman Republic.
      3. If the CP has a Pontifex Maximus they must approve of all candidates in order to be eligible for inauguration. 
    5. Special requirements for Flamen Dialis and Flaminica Dialis:
        1. Flamen Dialis and Flaminica Dialis
          1. Must be legally married and also married in a Roman ceremony recognized by the CP.
          2. Selected as a pair.
          3. If one of the pair dies, resigns, is removed or is no longer a Roman citizen the remaining member of the pair is automatically removed as Flamen Dialis or Flaminica Dialis without penalty
          4. May not serve as Censor, Consul or Praetor
    6. Removal of a Flamen Maiores
      1. A Flamen Maior is regarded as no longer living or a Roman citizen if they become incensus.
        1. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to all of the Capitoline triad and the cult attended by the flamen.
      2. The CP may request the Senate by ⅔ majority vote to authorize exauguration of a Flamen Maior. If ⅔ of the Senate confirms this request the Flamen Maiores to be exaugurated by an augur recognized by the senate of the Roman Republic.
        1. The Flamen Maioris only revoked of their position with positive auspices to this question
        2. Any Flamen Maior who has their priesthood revoked is regarded as capitis absens for life unless pardoned by both a censorial edict and the CP.
        3. Any Flamen Maior that is removed is also removed from the CP.
        4. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to all of the capitoline triad and the cult attended by the flamen.
      3. If a Flamen Maior resigns their position, they are to be exaugurated by an augur recognized by the senate of the Roman Republic.
        1. The Flamen Maior is only revoked of their position with positive auspices to this question
        2. Any Flamen Maior who resigns is regarded as capitis absens for life unless pardoned by both a censorial edict and the CP.
        3. Any Flamen Maior who resigns is removed from the CP.
        4. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to all of the capitoline triad and the cult attended by the flamen.
  • Flamen Minores (Maximum of ten members)
    1. There shall be one member appointed to each of the following:
      1. Flamen Carmentalis, dedicated to Carmentis
      2. Flamen Cerialis, dedicated to Ceres
      3. Flamen Falacer, dedicated to Falacer
      4. Flamen Floralis, dedicated to Flora
      5. Flamen Furrinalis, dedicated to Furrina
      6. Flamen Palatualis, dedicated to Palatua
      7. Flamen Pomonalis, dedicated to Pomona
      8. Flamen Portunalis, dedicated to Portunus
      9. Flamen Volcanalis, dedicated to Vulcan
      10. Flamen Volturnalis, dedicated to Volturnus
    2. All Flamen Minores hold a term lasting for life
    3. Responsibilities of the Flamen Minores
      1. To ensure everything outlined in the purpose section of this lex is carried out
      2. To promote and educate on the Cultus Deorum Romanorum
      3. To assist with the conduct of ceremonies for the sacra publica of the Roman Republic as defined by the CP
      4. To represent their respective cults in their person and their public activities and to develop these cults publicly
    4. Powers of the Flamen Minores:
      1. Each holds 1 vote within the CP
      2. May appoint and remove proflamen from any other member of the CP to act on their own behalf when unavailable.
    5. Selection of a Flamen Minores: 
      1. Is to be selected from amongst existing Pontifex Minores in an election held by the CP. If no Pontifex Minores exist then the CP may nominate candidates. Any such election is to be held in private and only open to members attending the meeting in question.
      2. Once affirmed as a candidate the nominee must be inaugurated with auspices validated by an augur recognized by the senate of the Roman Republic.
      3. If the CP has a Pontifex Maximus they must approve of all candidates in order to be eligible for inauguration. 
    6. Removal of a Flamen Minores
      1. A Flamen Minor is regarded as no longer living or a Roman citizen if they become incensus.
        1. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to all of the capitoline triad and the cult attended by the flamen.
      2. The CP may request the Senate by ⅔ majority vote to authorize exauguration of a Flamen Minor. If ⅔ of the Senate confirms this request the Flamen Maiores to be exaugurated by an augur recognized by the senate of the Roman Republic.
        1. The Flamen Minor is only revoked of their position with positive auspices to this question
        2. Any Flamen Minor who has their priesthood revoked is regarded as capitis absens for life unless pardoned by both a censorial edict and the CP.
        3. Any Flamen Minor that is removed is also removed from the CP.
        4. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to all of the capitoline triad and the cult attended by the flamen..
      3. If a Flamen Minor resigns their position, they are to be exaugurated by an augur recognized by the senate of the Roman Republic.
        1. The Flamen Minor is only revoked of their position with positive auspices to this question
        2. Any Flamen Minor who resigns is regarded as capitis absens for life unless pardoned by both a censorial edict and the CP.
        3. Any Flamen Minor who resigns is removed from the CP.
        4. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to all of the capitoline triad and the cult attended by the flamen.
  1. Vestal  (Maximum of six members)
    1. Responsibilities of the Vestalis
      1. To ensure everything outlined in the purpose section of this lex is carried out
      2. To promote and educate on the Cultus Deorum Romanorum
      3. To assist with the conduct of ceremonies for the sacra publica of the Roman Republic as defined by the CP
      4. To represent the cult of Vesta in their person and their public activities and to develop this cult publicly
    2. Powers of the Vestales:
      1. Each holds 1 vote within the CP
    3. Selection of a Vestales: 
      1. To be selected from citizens of the Roman Republic who are female
      2. Must not married or in a relationship with the opposite sex. 
        1. While serving as Vestalis they must continue to follow these guidelines
      3. Must have two living parents
      4. Is to be selected by the Pontifex Maximus if one is serving, otherwise to be elected by the CP. The candidate must consent to such selection.
    4. Term of a Vestalis
      1. A Vestalis is to be honorably discharged after serving 30 years.
        1. Such individuals are to be granted tax class I for life, but must still respond to the annual census.
        2. They are to be relieved of their duties as Vestalis at this time.
    5. Removal of a Vestalis
      1. A Vestalis is regarded as no longer living or a Roman citizen if they become incensus.
        1. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to Vesta.
      2. The CP may request the Senate by ⅔ majority vote to authorize removal of a Vestalis. Is to be removed by a ⅔ vote of the Senate.
        1. Any Vestalis who has their priesthood revoked is regarded as capitis absens for life unless pardoned by both a censorial edict and the CP.
        2. Any Vestalis that is removed is also removed from the CP.
        3. If removed the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to Vesta
      3. If a Vestalis resigns their position
        1. If resigning the Senate must authorize expiatory sacrifice to Vesta
        2. The former Vestalis is ineligible to readmittance to the CP for life and may not serve as a Vestalis again.
  • Pontifex Minores (no maximum number)
    1. Responsibilities of the Pontifex Minores
      1. To learn how to implement everything outlined in the purpose section of this lex 
      2. To assist with the conduct of ceremonies for the sacra publica of the Roman Republic as defined by the CP
      3. To learn how to serve as pontifex, flamen, or rex/regina sacrorum
      4. To assist the CP in administrative tasks
    2. Term of the Pontifex Minores
      1. Holds a term lasting for life or until they resign or elected to another position within the CP
    3. Powers of the Pontifex Minores:
      1. Cannot vote in CP meetings, but may attend meetings of the CP.
      2. Cannot be appointed Proflamen or Pontifex Pro Magistro
      3. If appointed to another non-temporary position within the CP they are no longer regarded as a Pontifex Minor
    4. Selection of Pontifex Minores: 
      1. Is to be selected from amongst citizens with optimo iure status. 
      2. Can be directly appointed to this position by the Pontifex Maximus or  Pontifex Pro Magistro
      3. May be elected to this position by the CP
    5. Removal of Pontifex Minores:
      1. A Pontifex Minor is regarded as no longer living or a Roman citizen if they become incensus.
      2. The CP may remove a Pontifex Minores by majority vote
      3. The Pontifex Maximus or Pontifex Pro Magistro may remove a Pontifex Pro Magistro
      4. A majority vote by the Senate may remove a Pontifex Minor
    6. If a Flamen Minor may resign their position without penalty.
  • Proflamen (maximum of 13 appointed at any given time)
    1. Responsibilities of a Proflamen 
      1. To temporarily represent their respective cult of a flamen when no permanent flamern is available or appointed.
      2. To develop the cults of the flamen for which they are temporarily responsible
    2. Powers of a Proflamen
      1. There are no additional powers granted to a proflamen. 
      2. All proflamen must already be a voting member of the CP, their powers are granted by the position they hold on the CP
    3. Selection of a Proflamen: 
      1. Appointed by the Pontifex Maximus, Pontifex Pro Magistro, Flamen or by majority vote of the CP
        1. When appointed the particular responsibilities of the Flamen for which the Proflamen is appointed will be specified.
          1. If appointed  by a Flamen they may only be appointed to the responsibilities held by that particular Flamen.
    4. Removal of a Proflamen:
      1. Removed by the Pontifex Maximus, Pontifex Pro Magistro, Flamen or by majority vote of the CP.
      2. A Proflamen may resign without penalty

On Ius Pontificium of the Collegium Pontificum:

  1. The CP by ⅔ majority vote may issue operating procedures (Ius Pontificium) pertaining to the following:
  2. There are 3 categories of decrees:
    1.  Ius Sacrorum
      1. Describes the correct procedure on topics pertaining to the following:
        1. On marriages
        2. On adoptions
        3. Recommendations on Sacra Privata
        4. Issues pertaining to the gentes system
        5. On interactions of the CP with other bodies of the Roman Republic
    2.  Ius Caerimoniarum
      1. Describes the correct procedure on topics pertaining to the following:
        1. On conduct of Sacra Publica and ceremonies forming part of the Sacra Publica
        2. Defining roles and limitations of members of the CP
        3. Roman Republic calendar as it pertains to the Sacra Publica
        4. Governance of the CP
        5. On the recognition of other religious colleges, groups and bodies pertaining to sacra publica
        6. Actions in response to prodigies
        7. Recognition of new cults into the Sacra Publica
    3. Ius Manium
      1. Describes the correct procedure on topics pertaining to public acts relating to burials and honoring of the dead
  3. Lex (standing operating procedures) and bylaws of the Roman Republic supersede Ius Pontificium

Judgments, rulings, and actions made by the Collegium Pontificum based on Ius Pontificium (Decreta and Responsa):

  1. Any action or ruling based on Ius Pontificium is to be issued as a decreta or responsa
    1. Issuing decreta or responsa requires a majority vote of the CP
  2. Decreta and responsa are to be publicly recorded and archived in a libri pontificum
  3. Decreta and responsa may be rescinded by ⅔ majority vote of the CP
  4. Decreta are issued by the CP independently 
  5. Responsa are issued upon the request of a magistrate elected by the Comitia Centuriata, Tributa or Concillium Plebis, promagistrate, provincial governor, other priestly collegium recognized by the CP, Senate, or directly by an assembly of the Roman people (Comitia Centuriata, Tributa, Concillium Plebis, Comitia Curiata)

Meetings of the Collegium Pontificum:

  • Calling a meeting of the Collegium Pontificum 
    1. The Consules, Praetores, Pontifex Maximus, Pontifex Pro Magistro, any three senatores, or priestly collegium recognized by the CP, or any two members of the CP may summon a meeting.
    2. All members of the CP must be informed by email or equivalent private communication of a meeting being called.
      1. Notification must occur at least 72 hrs in advance of the meeting starting
      2. A proposed agenda of the meeting should be listed in the notification
      3. The dates of debate and voting phases of the meeting must be stated in the notification.
      4. The location of the meeting, physical or electronic must be stated in the notification
    3. A public notification of a meeting of the CP should be posted in publica fora of the Roman Republic accessible to all citizens.
      1. Notification must occur at least 72 hrs in advance of the meeting starting
      2. The notification should outline if the meeting is open or closed to public
      3. The dates of debate and voting phases of the meeting must be stated in the notification.
      4. The location of the meeting, physical or electronic must be stated in the notification\
  • Holding a meeting of the Collegium Pontificum
    1. May be held in any fora that allows are members to attend and hear/read each others opinions
    2. Every meeting of the Collegium Pontificum is to open with a ceremony dedicated to the Archaic Triad (Iupiter, Mars and Quirinus)
    3. A debate phase of a meeting must occur prior to any vote of the CP. This phase is to be no more than 14 days in duration.
    4. A vote phase of a meeting must be at least 7 days or sooner of a clear majority can be determined on all issues voted upon.
    5. Quorum of CP meetings is a minimum of 3 members who must be the following:
      1.  Pontifex, Pontifex Pro Magistro, Pontifex Maximus or Flamen Maior
    6. Further details on the conduct of CP meetings may be clarified as Ius Caerimoniarum
  • Breaking ties when voting in the CP
    1. Priority for breaking ties follows (from first priority to last) based on attendance at the give meeting which is carrying out the vote:
      1. Pontifex Maximus
      2. Rex Sacrorum or Regina Sacrorum (based on who has the lowest citizen ID number)
      3. Pontifex Pro Magistro
      4. Pontifex  (based on who has the lowest citizen ID number)
      5. Flamen Dialis and Flaminica Dialis (based on who has the lowest citizen ID number)
      6. Flamen Martialis or Flamen Quirinalis  (based on who has the lowest citizen ID number)
      7. Vestal (based on who has the lowest citizen ID number)
      8. Flamen Minores (based on who has the lowest citizen ID number)
    2. A member of the CP serving as a Proflamen does not break ties based on the priestly office they are temporarily serving. 
  • Chairing meetings of the Collegium Pontificum
    1. Priority for chairing meetings of the CP is listed as follows from highest priority to lowest. The highest priority member in attendance will chair the meeting.
      1. Pontifex Maximus
      2. Rex Sacrorum or Regina Sacrorum (based on who has the lowest citizen ID number)
      3. Pontifex Pro Magistro
      4. Pontifex  (based on who has the lowest citizen ID number)
      5. Flamen Dialis and Flaminica Dialis (based on who has the lowest citizen ID number)
      6. Flamen Martialis or Flamen Quirinalis  (based on who has the lowest citizen ID number)
    2. Duties of the chair:
      1. To open the meeting with a ceremony
      2. To ensure order
      3. To progress the meeting through the debate and voting phase
      4. To announce the results of a meeting
      5. To close a meeting

Rescinding or amending this Lex:

  1. Requires ⅔ majority support of the Senate, majority support of the Comitia Tributa.
  2. Requires consultation with the Collegium Pontificum by the Senate prior to any change being proposed in the Senate.

(The following is an appendix to the lex and not officially part of it)

Sources used to draft this proposed lex

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  • Bremer, F. P. (ed.) Iurisprudentiae Antehadrianae Quae Supersunt. Vols. 1, 2.1, 2.2. Leipzig: Teubner, 1896, 1898, 1901. 
  • Cary, Earnest. The Roman Antiquities of Dionysius of Halicarnassus. 7 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1937-1950. 
  • Chassignet, Martine. L’Annalistique Romaine. Tome 1: Les Annales des Pontifes. L’Annalistique Ancienne. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1996.  
  • Conway, Robert Seymour and Stephan Keymer Johnson (edd.) Titi Livi Ab Urbe Condita. Tomus IV. Libri XXVI-XXX. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1935. 
  • Davies, Percival Vaughan. Macrobius: the Saturnalia. Translated with an introduction and notes. New York & London: Columbia University Press, 1969. 
  • Dyck, Andrew W. A Commentary on Cicero, De Legibus. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2004. 
  • Forsythe, Gary. The Historian L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi and the Roman Annalistic Tradition. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1994.  
  • Foster, B. O. Livy in Fourteen Volumes. Vol. V: Books XXI-XXII. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1929.
  •  Idem. Livy in Fourteen Volumes. Vol. III: Books V-VII. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1924.
  •  Idem. Livy in Fourteen Volumes. Vol. I: Books I and II. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1919. 
  • Jones, W. H. S. Pliny. Natural History. 10 vols. Vol. VIII: Libri XXVIII-XXXII. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963.  
  • Keyes, Clinton Walker. Cicero. De Republica. De Legibus. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1928. 
  • King, J. E. Cicero. Tusculan Disputations. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960.  
  • Mommsen, Theodor, Paul Krueger, & Alan Watson (edd.) The Digest of Justinian. Latin text edited by Theodor Mommsen with the aid of Paul Krueger; English trans. by various hands, ed. by Alan Watson. 4 vols. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985.  
  • Nisbet, Robert George. M. Tulli Ciceronis de domo sua ad pontifices oratio. Latin texts and commentaries. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1939 (Reprinted, New York: Arno Press, 1979).  
  • Riposati, Benedetto. M. Terrenti Varronis De Vita Populi Romani. Fonti, Esegesi, Edizione critica dei frammenti. Pubblicazioni dell’Università Cattolica del S. Cuore. Ser. 4, Scienze filologiche, v. 33. 2nd ed. Milan: Società editrice “vita e pensiero”, 1972.  
  • Rolfe, John C. The Attic Nights of Aulus Gellius. 3 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1946.  
  • Rudd, Niall. Cicero. The Republic, The Laws. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. 
  • Idem. Cicero’s Letters to Atticus. Vol. II: 58-54 B.C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965. [= 1965b]  
  • Idem. Cicero’s Letters to Atticus. Vol. I: 68-59 B.C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965. [=1965a] 
  • Idem. (trans.) Cicero. The Nature of the Gods. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. 
  • Willis, Jacob. (ed.) Ambrosii Theodosii Macrobii Saturnalia, in Somnium Scipionis Commentarios. 2 vols. 2nd ed. Leipzig: Teubner, 1970.  
  • Badian, Ernst. Review of Cicero. Scripta Quae Manserunt Omnia. Fasc. 4. Brutus. Ed. E. Malcovati & Cicero. Brutus. Ed. A. E. Douglas. Journal of Roman Studies 57 no. 1/2 (1967): 223-230. 
  • Beard, Mary. “Religion.” In: The Cambridge Ancient History Vol. IX: The Last Age of the Roman Republic, 146-43 B.C., 2nd. ed., edd. J. A. Crook, Andrew Lintott, Elizabeth Rawson, 729-768. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.  
  • Beard, Mary & John North (eds.). Pagan Priests: Religion and Power in the Ancient World. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1990. 
  • Beard, Mary, John North, Simon Price. Religions of Rome. Volume 1: A History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. 
  • Bodel, John Putnam. “Review Article: Patrons and Priests in Roman Society.” Échos du Monde Classique 36, n.s. 11 (1992): 387-407. 
  • Cohee, Lloyd L., jr. “Is an augur a sacerdos? (Cic. leg. 2.20-21).” Philologus 145.1 (2001): 79-99.  
  • Idem. Decrees and Responses of the Roman Priesthoods during the Republic. Ph.D. diss, University of Colorado, Bolder, 1994.  
  • Dickey, Eleanor. Latin Forms of Address: from Plautus to Apuleius. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. 
  • Forsythe, Gary. A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.  
  • Frier, Bruce. Libri Annales Pontificum Maximorum: the Origins of the Annalistic Tradition. Papers and Monographs of the American Academy in Rome, 27. 2nd edition. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999.  
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  • Hickson, Frances Vincent. Roman Prayer Language: Livy and the Aeneid of Virgil. Stuttgart: Teubner, 1993.
  • Linderski, Jerzy. “Religious Communities.” Review of: Les communautés religieuses dans le monde gréco-romain. Essais de définition. Edd. N. Belayche, S. C. Mimouni. (Turnhout: Brepols, 2003). In: The Clasical Review 55.2 (2005): 651-652.  
  • Lorsch Wildfang, Robin. Rome’s Vestal Virgins. A Study of Rome’s Vestal Priestesses in the Late Republic and Early Empire. London and New York: Routledge, 2006.
  • Michels, Agnes Kirsopp. The Calendar of the Roman Republic. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967. 
  • Nock, Arthur Darby. “Tomb Violation and Pontifical Law.” The Journal of Biblical Literature 60 (1941): 88-95. 
  • North, John. “Conservatism and Change in Roman Religion.” Papers of the British School at Rome 44 (1976): 1-12.  
  • Idem. “Religious Toleration in Republican Rome.” Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 25 (1979): 85-103.  
  • Szemler, George John. “Pontifex.” RE Suppl. 15 (1978): 331-396. 
  • Idem. The Priests of the Roman Republic. A Study of Interactions Between Priesthoods and Magistracies. Collection Latomus 127. Bruxelles: Latomus, 1972.
  • Vanggaard, Jens H. The Flamen: A Study in the History and Sociology of Roman Religion. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1988.
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